The SLC40A1 R178Q Mutation Is A Recurrent Cause Of Hemochromatosis And Is Associated With A Novel Pathogenic Mechanism
EHA Learning Center. Ka C. Nov 1, 2018; 234396
Topic: 5E Genetics and molecular biology
Chandran Ka
Chandran Ka
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Co-Authors: Julie Guellec, Xavier Pepermans, Caroline Kannengiesser, Cécile Ged, Wim Wuyts, David Cassiman, Victor de Ledinghen, Bruno Varet, Caroline de Kerguenec, Claire Oudin, Isabelle Gourlaouen, Thibaud Lefebvre, Claude Férec, Isabelle Callebaut, Gérald Le Gac

Abstract: Hemochromatosis type 4 is one of the most common causes of primary iron overload, after HFE-related hemochromatosis. It is an autosomal dominant disorder, primarily due to missense mutations in SLC40A1. This gene encodes ferroportin 1 (FPN1), which is the sole iron export protein reported in mammals. Not all heterozygous missense mutations in SLC40A1 are disease-causing. Due to phenocopies and an increased demand for genetic testing, rare SLC40A1 variations are fortuitously observed in patients with a secondary cause of hyperferritinemia. Structure/function analysis is the most effective way of establishing causality when clinical and segregation data are lacking. It can also provide important insights into the mechanism of iron egress and FPN1 regulation by hepcidin. The present study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of the previously reported p.Arg178Gln variant. We present the biological, clinical, histological and radiological findings of 22 patients from six independent families of French, Belgian or Iraqi decent. Despite phenotypic variability, all patients with p.Arg178Gln had elevated serum ferritin concentrations and normal to low transferrin saturation levels. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the p.Arg178Gln mutant reduces the ability of FPN1 to export iron without causing protein mislocalization. Based on a comparative model of the 3D structure of human FPN1 in an outward facing conformation, we argue that p.Arg178 is part of an interaction network modulating the conformational changes required for iron transport. We conclude that p.Arg178Gln represents a new category of loss-of-function mutations and that the study of “gating residues” is necessary in order to fully understand the action mechanism of FPN1.

Article Number: 1796

Doi: 10.3324/haematol.2018.189845

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