Cytoprotective and pro-angiogenic functions of thrombomodulin are preserved in the C loop of the fifth epidermal growth factor-like domain
EHA Learning Center. Wang X. Oct 1, 2018; 234252
Topic: 4B Stem cell transplantation and other cellular therapies
Xiangmin Wang
Xiangmin Wang
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Co-Authors: Bin Pan, Goichi Honda, Xintao Wang, Yuko Hashimoto, Hiroshi Ohkawara, Kailin Xu, Lingyu Zeng, and Takayuki Ikezoe

Abstract: We previously found that the fifth epidermal growth factor-like domain of thrombomodulin (TME5) exerts cytoprotective and pro-angiogenic functions via G-protein coupled receptor 15 (GPR15). TME5 is comprised of three S-S bonds that divide it into three loops: A (TME5A), B (TME5B), and C (TME5C). Herein we identified the minimum structure of TME5 that produces favorable effects in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). We found that TME5C, composed of 19 amino acids, but not TME5A or TME5B, stimulated the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HHSECs). Matrigel plug assays showed that TME5C stimulates in vivo angiogenesis. In addition, TME5C counteracted calcineurin inhibitor-induced apoptosis and vascular permeability in HUVECs and HHSECs. Western blot analysis indicated that exposure of either HUVECs or HHSECs to TME5C increased the levels of anti-apoptotic myeloid cell leukemia-1 protein in association with the activation of signal transduction pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, AKT, and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. Importantly, TME5C did not affect the coagulation pathway in vitro. The cytoprotective function of TME5C was mediated by cell surface-expressed GPR15, as TME5C was not able to protect vascular ECs isolated from Gpr15 knock-out (KO) mice. Strikingly, TME5C successfully ameliorated sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in a murine model by counteracting the reduction of sinusoidal EC numbers. Taken together, the cytoprotective and pro-angiogenetic functions of TM are preserved in TME5C. The use of TME5C may be a promising treatment strategy to prevent or treat lethal complications, such as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, whose pathogenesis is based on endothelial insults.

Article Number: 1730

Doi: 10.3324/haematol.2017.184481

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