Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia has distinct clinical and cytogenetic features compared to de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but outcomes are comparable in transplanted patients
EHA Learning Center. Aldoss I. Oct 1, 2018; 234245
Topic: 3Fa Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B or T)
Ibrahim Aldoss
Ibrahim Aldoss
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Co-Authors: Tracey Stiller, Ni-Chun Tsai, Joo Y. Song, Thai Cao, N. Achini Bandara, Amandeep Salhotra, Samer Khaled, Ahmed Aribi, Monzr M. Al Malki, Matthew Mei, Haris Ali, Ricardo Spielberger, Margaret O’Donnell, David Snyder, Thomas Slavin, Ryotaro Nakamura, Anthony S. Stein, Stephen J. Forman, Guido Marcucci, Vinod Pullarkat

Abstract: Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains poorly defined due to a lack of large data sets recognizing the defining characteristics of this entity. We reviewed all consecutive cases of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated at our institution between 2000 and 2017 and identified therapy-related cases - defined as acute lymphoblastic leukemia preceded by prior exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation. Of 1022 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 93 (9.1%) were classified as therapy-related. The median latency for therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia onset was 6.8 years from original diagnosis, and this was shorter for patients carrying the MLL gene rearrangement compared to those with other cytogenetics. When compared to de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia, therapy-related patients were older (P<0.01), more often female (P<0.01), and had more MLL gene rearrangement (P<0.0001) and chromosomes 5/7 aberrations (P=0.02). Although therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia was associated with inferior 2-year overall survival compared to de novo cases (46.0% vs. 68.1%, P=0.001), prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy (therapy-related) did not independently impact survival in multivariate analysis (HR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.97–1.80, P=0.08). There was no survival difference (2-year = 53.4% vs. 58.9%, P=0.68) between the two groups in patients who received allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation. In conclusion, therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia represents a significant proportion of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnoses, and a subset of cases carry clinical and cytogenetic abnormalities similar to therapy-related myeloid neoplasms. Although survival of therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia was inferior to de novo cases, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes were comparable for the two entities.

Article Number: 1662

Doi: 10.3324/haematol.2018.193599

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