The spectrum of somatic mutations in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance indicates a less complex genomic landscape than that in multiple myeloma
EHA Learning Center. Mikulasova A. Sep 1, 2017; 196262
Topic: 3Ea Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)
Aneta Mikulasova
Aneta Mikulasova
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Co-Authors: Christopher P. Wardell, Alexander Murison, Eileen M. Boyle, Graham H. Jackson, Jan Smetana, Zuzana Kufova, Ludek Pour, Viera Sandecka, Martina Almasi, Pavla Vsianska, Evzen Gregora, Petr Kuglik, Roman Hajek, Faith E. Davies, Gareth J. Morgan, Brian A. Walker

Abstract: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is a pre-malignant precursor of multiple myeloma with a 1% risk of progression per year. Although targeted analyses have shown the presence of specific genetic abnormalities such as IGH translocations, RB1 deletion, 1q gain, hyperdiploidy or RAS gene mutations, little is known about the molecular mechanism of malignant transformation. We performed whole exome sequencing together with comparative genomic hybridization plus single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis in 33 flow-cytometry-separated abnormal plasma cell samples from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to describe somatic gene mutations and chromosome changes at the genome-wide level. Non-synonymous mutations and copy-number alterations were present in 97.0% and in 60.6% of cases, respectively. Importantly, the number of somatic mutations was significantly lower in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance than in myeloma (P<10−4) and we identified six genes that were significantly mutated in myeloma (KRAS, NRAS, DIS3, HIST1H1E, EGR1 and LTB) within the monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance dataset. We also found a positive correlation with increasing chromosome changes and somatic gene mutations. IGH translocations, comprising t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) and t(14;20), were present in 27.3% of cases and in a similar frequency to myeloma, consistent with the primary lesion hypothesis. MYC translocations and TP53 deletions or mutations were not detected in samples from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, indicating that they may be drivers of progression to myeloma. Data from this study show that monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is genetically similar to myeloma, however overall genetic abnormalities are present at significantly lower levels in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significant than in myeloma.

Article Number: 1617

Doi: 10.3324/haematol.2017.163766

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